1. What's the show about?
It's about the investigation of a strange series of events that seem like they wouldn't be able to be explained, at least by normal means. Olivia Dunham, the one investigating the events, is brought into the case when a plane is found with no survivors and everyone is melted. Her partner in the case, John Scott, manages to catch the same thing the victims in the plane had, and the only person who can save him is the scientist named Walter Bishop. Walter, having been institutionalized for the past 17 years, can only be allowed to see direct family. His son, Peter Bishop, is the only living family member that can get her in to ask help from Walter on how to maybe save her partner, as well as solve the mystery of how the event happened. (The show's really a lot better than I explained it. I promise.)
2. What is Fringe Science?
Fringe science is the study of unusual theories or ideas that are set far apart from typical scientific ideas. Such as cloning, animal or human hybrids, or psychokinesis. (Plate Tectonics used to be considered Fringe science.)